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Al-Maududi: Pejuang Islam di Anak Benua Asia

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Oleh; Wahyu Mukti Asri

Al-Maududi adalah seorang ahli politik yang juga sastrawan, negarawan, dan cendekiawan. Ia adalah seorang muharrik yang juga mufassir. Tokoh yang selalu mengobarkan jihad Islam. Namun, ia adalah jurnalis handal pada zamannya. Ia terlibat dalam banyak penerbitan surat kabar dan majalah. Ia berdakwah lewat jurnalistik dan buku.
Namanya adalah Abu al-A’la al-Maududi, lahir pada 3 Rajab 1321 H atau 1903 M di Kota Aurangabad, di wilayah Haidar Abad (India). Dia berasal dari keluarga yang sangat terhormat. Ia dibesarkan dalam keluarga yang zuhud. Dialek dan tutur katanya terjaga meskipun sering berpindah tempat. Keluarganya sangat terkenal dalam masalah-masalah keilmuan dan Agama.
Ayah al-Maududi tidak memasukannya ke sekolah-sekolah yang didirikan oleh Inggris. Ia diajar sendiri oleh ayahnya di rumah. Ayahnya senang membacakan Sirah Nabi dan Tarikh Islam sejak ia kecil. Ayahnya menginginkan al-Maududi menjadi seorang ulama, sehingga fokus memberikan pelajaran bahasa Arab dan Persia, Ilmu Fiqh dan Hadith. Al-Maududi tidak tertarik mempelajari bahasa Inggris.
Al-Maududi tergolong anak yang cerdas. Di sekolah, ia begitu menonjol. Ia duduk di kelas 8 pada usia 11 tahun. Pada usia ini, ia telah menulis artikel dan menyampaikan ceramah. Guru-guru dan para temannya sangat kagum. Pada usia 15 tahun, ia bekerja sebagai editor pada surat kabar harian yang terbit di kota kecil, Pajnoor. Ia bekerja untuk menghidupi dirinya dan membantu orangtuanya. Ayahnya sakit parah. Hanya bisa duduk dan sulit untuk bergerak hingga wafatnya.
Pada 1818 M, Abu al-Khair al-Maududi, kakak kandung al-Maududi, menjadi pemimpin redaksi surat kabar Bajamur. Ia pun ikut bekerja di sana. Inilah awal kiprah al-Maududi dalam dunia pers dan jurnalistik. Ketika surat kabar tersebut dibekukan oleh pemerintah, dua bersaudara ini lalu bergabung dengan gerakan kekhilafahan. Mereka sempat berkerja di majalah Taaj. Tugas jurnalistik majalah tersebut memaksa al-Maududi belajar bahasa Inggris. Setelah itu, ia mulai membaca buku-buku sejarah, filsafat, politik, sosial, perbandingan agama, dan lain-lain. Majalah itu pun ternyata kemudian ditutup oleh pemerintah.
Ia kemudian kembali ke Delhi dan menjadi pemimpin redaksi majalah Jaridah Muslim yang diterbitkan Organisasi Ulama India. Majalah itu ditutup oleh pemerintah pada tahun 1341 H. Awal tahun 1342, Al-Maududi diminta Muhammad Ali Jauhar membantu penerbitan surat kabar Hamdarat (Saling Kasih). Mereka berdua aktif menjawab tuduhan-tuduhan terhadap Islam yang dilontarkan Mahatma Gandhi. Sementara itu, Syaikh Ahmad Said ingin menerbitkan surat kabar dengan nama al-Jam`iyah, di bawah Organisasi Ulama India. Keduanya terbit awal tahun 1343 H. Keterlibatannya dalam dunia jurnalistik adalah dalam rangka membela Islam, yang saat itu menjadi sasaran tuduhan-tuduhan Mahatma Gandhi. Ketika itulah al-Maududi menulis dua buku, al-Jihad fil Islam dan al-Dawlah al-Ashifiyah wa al-Hukumah al-Birithaniyah.
Setelah menulis dua buku tersebut, al-Maududi keluar dari organisasi pers dan mulai menulis pemikirannya sendiri. Ia mulai menuangkan pemikirannya secara bebas. Ia menulis dengan metode yang ia yakini, bahwa setiap pemikiran memiliki lafal-lafal tertentu dan datang dengan lafalnya sendiri. Pada masa ini, al-Maududi banyak menulis makalah ilmiah dan buku-buku pemikiran Islam.
Al-Maududi memiliki pandangan yang integral antara perbaikan sistem dan perbaikan individu. Bahkan beliau tidak membedakan masalah pemikiran dengan masalah akhlak. Menurutnya, sistem yang baik hanya dapat dibentuk dan diemban oleh orang-orang baik. Akan tetapi, perbaikan individu harus dilanjutkan dengan memperbaiki sistem dan tatanan sosial dan pemikiran masyarakat.
Di sinilah konteks konsep jihad yang dipahami al-Maududi. Jihad tidak melulu membentuk sistem masyarakat atau politik, melainkan juga akhlak. Demikian juga sebaliknya. Dalam pandangan al-Maududi, jihad berwujud dalam 4 jenis konfrontasi: menentang sistem nasionalisme tunggal kesukuan, menentang hegemoni dan dominasi peradaban Barat, menentang pemimpin yang mengusung pemikiran kafir dan bertentangan dengan Islam, dan menentang kejumudan dalam fiqh dan ulumuddin. Oleh karena itu, ia menulis banyak karya di berbagai bidang. Ia tidak hanya menulis dan mendakwahkan persoalan politik dan undang-undang, tapi juga masalah pendidikan dan tafsir Al-Qur`an. Ia juga tidak hanya berjiwa revolusioner, tapi seorang pecinta sastra dan keindahan.
Pada 1943, al-Maududi mendirikan Jama’at Islami. Dengan menggunakan pengaruhnya dan juga organisasinya, ia membantu perjuangan rakyat Palestina. Pada 1948, dia dipenjara dan dibebaskan pada 1950. Pada 1953, ia dipenjara dua kali. Pada tahun ini pula ia dijatuhi hukuman mati, tetapi hukuman tersebut diganti dengan hukuman penjara seumur hidup. Pada 1955, ia dibebaskan. Pada tahun 1958, Jama’at Islami dibubarkan. Keputusan tersebut kemudian dicabut karena dianggap bertentangan dengan Undang-Undang yang berlaku. Pada tahun 1964, para pemimpin Jama’at Islami dipenjara. Oleh karena adanya tekanan dari masyarakat, akhirnya mereka dibebaskan.
Ketika kondisi kesehatan al-Maududi mulai menurun, kepemimpinan Jama’at Islami diserahkan kepada Muhammad Thufail. Al-Maududi kemudian berkonsentrasi dalam bidang pemikiran Islam. Pada 1961, dia membuat rencana yang matang untuk mendirikan sebuah universitas Islam di Madinah Munawwarah. Dia juga mendirikan organisasi Rabithah Alam Islami.
Setelah penyerangan pasukan India ke Pakistan pada 1965, al-Maududi menyerukan umat Islam untuk melakukan jihad. Ia juga mengecam dengan keras kekejaman pasukan India di wilayah Kash­mir. Pada 1967, ia dipenjara selama dua bulan. Pada 1979, al-Maududi wafat di Kota New York (Amerika Serikat), setelah menjalani operasi perut. Maksud dari kepergiannya ke New York adalah untuk menengok puteranya. Di samping berhasil mewariskan konsep jihad, al-Maududi meninggalkan warisan ilmu pengetahuan yang luas kepada dunia, khususnya umat Islam. Ia menulis ratusan karya yang fokus pada Al-Qur`an dan Hadits, pendidikan Islam, sejarah dan peradaban, politik, hukum dan Undang-Undang, ilmu sosial, ilmu ekonomi, dan kemasyarakatan.•
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Wahyu Mukti Asri, Aktivis Teater Eska UIN Sunan Kalijaga, Yogyakarta.

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